Jesus is about to perform His last great miracle in the Gospel of John, the resurrection of Lazarus. In these first sixteen verses, Christ is expounding on the purpose for the death of Lazarus, and how His disciples can have genuine joy and hope in the midst of deep pain and suffering. All things, including the death of Lazarus, are working for the good of Jesus’s people, and for His glory as the Son of God.
Jesus is continuing to expound on what it means for Him to be the living bread from heaven. We are not to follow Christ because of what we get from him materially, as the Jews are doing in this text, rather we are to follow and believe in Christ in order to get Christ! He is our true manna from heaven. He is the only one who can nourish and satisfy our souls. It is also in Christ alone that we are saved, preserved through this life, and resurrected on the last day. So do you believe on this Jesus?
Christ here puts his compassion on full display as he gently exposes the sin of the Samaritan woman and guides her in the truth of what true, new covenant worship ought to look like.
Christ speaks in a parable here in order to reveal more truth regarding the coming of His new covenant, and how that new covenant is far better than the covenant of works that came before. The new wine of the gospel can only be placed within the new covenant, it cannot simply be tacked onto the old covenant in one’s attempt to justify themselves by their works.